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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. A sample of 39 young heterosexual couples aged between 15 and 20 years mean age suggest that, neither boyfriends nor girlfriends own perpetration of dating violence was related to their display of positive and negative communication behaviors.
Such confirm the need to shift our focus from an individual perspective to examining dyadic influences and processes involved in the couple system and the bi-directionality of violent relationships.
There has been accumulating evidence that a large proportion of violence in adolescents dating relationships is bidirectional perpetrated by both partners. For example, a recent review of the literature showed that, on average, Knoxville dating a canadian According to the of a meta-analytic review by Stith, Smith, Penn, Ward, and Trittmale-to-female physical violence victimization is a strong predictor of the victim using violence toward her partner. However, authors point out that the presence of bidirectional violence does not mean that all aspects of female and male violence are symmetrical as many gender differences can still be evident.
In order to take better of bi-directionality, it is important to adopt a dyadic approach when exploring DV. In fact, researchers have recently developed conceptual models of intimate partner violence that focus on interactional processes and highlight the importance of dyadic context when understanding violence e. To date, research has largely focused on males and females separately. For example, Bartholomew and Cobb refer to four sets of factors: 1 background and dispositional characteristics e.
The model argues that partners may influence each other at any of the four stages of the model. Bartholomew and Cobb maintain that partners in mutually satisfying relationships should not be at risk of experiencing violence regardless of their individual characteristics.
While research on adolescent DV is limited in comparison to adult partner violence, there has been a recent surge of interest in this population. The onset of adolescence is an important developmental life stage that involves numerous physical, emotional and sexual changes.
Such experiences can greatly influence the formation of identity, attachment patterns and interactional patterns that can persist into adulthood. Only a handful of scholars have examined dyadic influences in adolescent relationships. More specifically their findings indicated how perpetration of physical violence in high school boys and girls is predicted by the victimization they reported three months earlier. Although this study provided valuable insight into the interactive nature of dating violence, the fact that it was based solely on individual and not couple data is a definite shortcoming.
While also using individual data, other studies have documented dyadic risk factors of DV. research with adult couples have repeatedly demonstrated how dyadic interactions observed during problem-solving discussions can differentiate between violent and nonviolent couples e.
In their study on the effects of alcohol on marital interactions, Leonard and Roberts found that couples in which husbands had perpetrated intimate partner violence exhibited ificantly more negative behaviors and higher rates of negative reciprocity than couples without a history of husband-to-wife aggression. Similar were reported by Gottman and Notarius in their review of existing observational research on marital interactions. It remains to be determined if such observations can be found in adolescents. This study seeks to add to the small but growing body of work on dyadic influences in DV.
The objective is to move beyond individual factors, improve our comprehensive understanding of the relational dynamics at play, and offer cues for the development of more efficient prevention and intervention efforts targeted at adolescents. Thirty-nine young couples of French-Canadian background aged between 15 and 20 years old were recruited in the Greater Montreal area. To be eligible, couples had to be in a committed heterosexual relationship for more than two months.
Partners could neither be cohabitating nor be the responsible caretaker of a dependent. The demographic and relationship characteristics for boys and girls are presented in Table 1.
Most adolescents had been dating their partner more than a year average length Young couples were recruited through youth organizations from the Greater Montreal area e. Potential participants were first screened for eligibility by telephone. Eligible couples came to our laboratory for a 2-hr session.
After being greeted by two experimenters, the study protocol was presented in detail to ensure adequate comprehension of study goals, procedure, risks and benefits. Ethical considerations were also discussed e. Upon consent, each member of the couple completed a set of questionnaires and an individual semi-structured interview on their own.
The couple was then reunited to participate in a videotaped interaction session consisting of a 3-min warm-up activity followed by two 7-min discussions. The warm-up activity i. A counter-balanced approach was used to ensure that an equal of dy discussed the male or female issue first.
No observer was present during the videotaped discussions. Individual debriefing was provided following the interaction and a list of psychosocial resources was handed out to all participants. In the current study we focused specifically on perpetration of DV reported by the respondent against his or her current dating partner. Internal consistency for the perpetration subscale was satisfactory with an alpha score of.
This checklist includes 17 common issues of disagreement between adolescent romantic couple members, as well as an option to write issues not on the list. Researchers selected the most highly rated issue of each member of the couple to discuss during the interaction session.
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This global coding system was developed to better assess the quality of problem-solving behaviors. It provides seven individual dimensions i. Table 2 provides a brief overview of the definitions of the seven individual observed variables used in the current analysis.
Individual dimensions are rated from 1 to 9, with higher scores indicating greater intensity of the behavior.
Each discussion was used as a unit of observation for the seven individual dimensions of this study. In addition, Positive interaction and Negative interaction composite scores were created for the present study. Two graduate students, who received more than 80 hours of training, coded the interactions. Inter-rater agreement coefficient ranged from. Preliminary analyses correlations, t tests did not support the need to use the observed variables from both discussions as scores of the first and second 7-min discussions were highly correlated and no ificant differences were identified between scores.
On the basis of theseand for matters of parsimony, only the scores from the second videotaped problem-solving discussion were used for the present analyses. Given that the current study assumes the presence of mutual influence between boyfriends and girlfriends, we needed an analytic approach that takes into the interdependence of dyadic data.
The APIM allows this by assessing both actor and partner effects and, therefore, simultaneously ing for both individual and dyadic factors. Two different models were estimated; one for positive communication behaviors and one for negative communication behaviors. Both models were examined with the software package Mplus-Version 6. With this procedure, it is possible to test, for example, whether boyfriends and girlfriends have the same influence on each other.
To do so, the chi-square of the initial fully saturated model is compared to the chi-square of the same model but with the two partner effects forced to be equal. If the difference between the two models is found to be non-ificant the two estimates are considered equivalent. In our example, the two partner effects would therefore be determined ificantly different from each other, meaning that one partner has more influence on the other.
The same model was tested twice for both positive and negative communication behaviors. Out of a total of 39 couples, there were 23 boys No such difference was found for psychological For Regarding the composite scores that were created from the seven individual communication dimensions from the IDCS, mean scores on the Positive scale were 4.
Mean scores on the Negative scale were 3. of paired t -tests indicated that there were no ificant differences between boyfriends and girlfriends on their levels of communication behaviors.
To assess differences within each gender and determine which, between positive and negative communication behaviors, were exhibited the most, t -tests were conducted. Preliminary analyses of the relationship between perpetrated DV and Communication Behaviors were conducted using Pearson correlations. Table 3 presents the intercorrelations among all variables for boyfriends and girlfriends.
To determine the presence of non-independence between outcome variables, an essential condition for dyadic analyses, we also examined within-dyad correlations. Therefore, it was not relevant to examine traditional fit indices. Separate models were estimated for negative communication behaviors and for positive communication behaviors.
The estimates pertaining to both models are presented in Table 4.
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suggest that, for neither boyfriends nor girlfriends actor effects were statistically ificant, indicating that their own perpetration of DV is not related to their display of positive or negative communication behaviors. The first model ed for The second model ed for 9. Actor and partner effects are standardized regression coefficient. Further, in order to explore if one dating partner had more influence on the other, we tested, as specified by Cook and Kennysets of equality constraints using the chi-square difference test.
We tested an additional set of equality constraints to compare the actor and the partner effects predicting communication behaviors displayed by each partner. In doing so, our study expands on prior knowledge by providing insight on the inter-influences within the couple system and the bidirectionality of violent relationships.
Out of a total of 39 couples, Perpetration of violence was found to be self-reported by both partners in This rate of bidirectional violence is very comparable to what was found in Langhinrichsen-Rohling and colleagues comprehensive review Until recently, most studies that have examined reciprocal DV have done so using only unilateral reporting of participants own perpetration of violence and that of their partners. The current findings address this gap in knowledge and suggest that bidirectionality is also evident when collecting violence data directly from both partners.
Such reciprocal violence in Knoxville dating a canadian samples is often referred to as situational violence Johnson,which according to Johnson is the most common type of partner violence.
Dyadic dynamics in young couples reporting dating violence: an actor-partner interdependence model
Further research in this area will therefore be necessary to develop similar typologies of adolescent to classify bi-directional violent dating relationships. Such typologies could help personalize prevention and intervention efforts in order to optimize their impact. This result is not surprising considering that, for a majority of participants, this was their very first romantic relationship.
The present study has some limitations which provide additional directions for future research.